Picture of what a person with  cataracts sees


There are over 1 million Cataract operations performed annually in the USA. Cataract surgery is an outpatient procedure with a very high success rate. Due to the lack of modern medical technology in the developing world, it is also the world's leading cause of blindness. Over 16 million people are blind from cataracts.

Picture of what a person with diabetic retinopathy sees

Diabetic Retinopathy

This complication of diabetes is a leading cause of blindness among middle-aged Americans. The longer a person has had diabetes the more apt they are to develop diabetic retinopathy. Laser surgery can slow the progression of this disease along with management of blood glucose levels. There are 2.4 million people blind from retinopathy worldwide.

Picture of what a person with glaucoma sees


This disease increases the fluid pressure inside the eye, leading to loss of side vision and eventually total blindness. The increased pressure destroys the optic nerve. With early detection, it can be kept under control with pressure reducing eye drops and surgery. Chances of developing it increase with age. There are over five million people blind from glaucoma worldwide.

Picture of what a person with macular degeneration sees

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

This is a degenerative disease of the macula; the macula is the part of the retina responsible for central vision. There is no way yet of repairing the vision that has been lost, but if detected early laser surgery can help slow the progression of the disease. (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in people over age 65. Eight million people are legally blind from macular degeneration worldwide and as the population ages this number is expected to grow.

Picture of what a person with retinitis pigmentosa sees

Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP)

This rare inherited degenerative disease slowly destroys the retina. Signs of (RP) first show up in early childhood. The side vision is lost first. The disease progresses over many years leaving the person with only a small portion of their central vision. There is no cure for (RP) yet. There are 1.6 million people blind from (RP) worldwide.

Picture of what a person with Left Field Homonymous Hemianopia sees

Left Field Homonymous Hemianopia

A left (or right) homonymous hemianopia (also called hemianopsia) means that the patient cannot see anything in the entire left or right visual field in both eyes. Because both eyes are affected more or less equally, the location of the problem must be at the optic chiasm or further back along the visual pathways. Some patients may state, truthfully, that they cannot see anything in the affected visual field. But sometimes the patient may be able to fixate or look directly at or point to a visual object located in the affected visual field, even though they do not consciously "see" the object. This condition is referred to as "Blind Sight."

Picture of what a person with Left Field Homonymous Hemianopia with Macular Sparing sees

Left Field Homonymous Hemianopia with Macular Sparing

Sometimes a left homonymous hemianopia (hemianopsia) will not include the very central part of the visual field, called the macula. As a consequence, "...with macular sparing."

Picture of what a person with Migraine Fortification Phenomenon sees

Migraine Fortification Phenomenon

Sometimes in a migraine, the patient will experience visual symptoms similar to that shown to the left. The center of the visual effect may be in the patients central vision or it may appear off to one side. First, the very central part of vision is affected with decreased vision and the shimmering appearance of lines as illustrated. As time goes by, the area of vision affected grows and when central vision may appear somewhat blurred, the shimmering lines expand outward and may engulf most of the visual field. The visual effect affects both eyes similarly. Once the visual effect diminishes, vision returns to normal and the patient may experience other symptoms of the migraine including headache, nausea, loss of balance, ringing in the ears and other body sensations.

Picture of what a person with Ring or Donut Scotoma sees

Ring or Donut Scotoma

A ring or donut shaped scotoma is an area of reduced vision that forms a shape similar to a ring or donut - the patient can see fine in the center and off-center a little bit but then there is an area of reduced vision followed by another area or normal vision as depicted in the photograph. Sometimes the ring or donut will not be totally round or complete but may appear like two crescent moons facing each other. A ring scotoma is often an early sign of a serious retinal disease/degeneration such as retinitis pigmentosa or other type of rod-cone degeneration.

Picture of what a person with Scotomas Caused by Pituitary Tumors (Lesions) left eye sees
Picture of what a person with Scotomas Caused by Pituitary Tumors (Lesions) right eye sees

Scotomas Caused by Pituitary Tumors (Lesions)

Pituitary tumors (lesions, classic pituitary adenomas) can sometimes cause very different losses of vision in the left and right eyes. For example, as simulated in the pictures, with the left eye the patient may see clearly only on the right side while with the right eye the patient may see clearly only on the left side. If the scotomas (i.e., blind spots in vision) are large, the patient may experience unstable vision characterized by bouts of double vision (diplopia) and confusion with object localization in 3D space. Visual acuity may also be affected in one or both eyes, again sometimes very differently: Visual acuity can be 20/20 in one eye and the patient may only be able to count fingers with the other eye. Any field loss of vision warrants an immediate trip to the eye doctor; ASAP. Other types of pathology can also cause visual field losses, so just because you have a field loss does not mean that you have a pituitary tumor.

Left eye view shown in top photo, right eye view on bottom.

adapted from San Antonio Low Vision Club


sjainmd said...


We publish The Eye Digest ( It deals with diseases of the aging eye.

Please visit the website and email me at eyedigest @ eyedigest. com

Vicki said...

Hi Dr. Tess,

dia ako na kita ang name sa akoa...finding ani last March, nako adto sa akong eye doctor, kay every year man gyd mi check-up.....

Retinitis centralis serosa-- Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC)........mao ni siya dra.
ako nabasa sa Internet;

Background: Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is usually a benign disorder which resolves spontaneously, and requires no treatment. Nevertheless, in cases of chronic or recurrent detachment of the neurosensory retina a durable decrease of the visual acuity may be measured due to lesion of the photoreceptors.

pag-adto nako sa eye doctor sa heidelberg, negative man ila Check-up sa akoa...

ila reasons: basin kono Stress lang ko....may puruhan kono mawala, kung stress lang.....

mao ba ni?....then ila advice nga i have to check-up every 6 mos....control lang kono, kay basin may purohan daw mobalik...

Dili ba ni hadlok?....kay sulti ako eye dr. diri sa amoa, nga mag-amping lang daw, kay bata pa daw ko, maka buta ba ni siya, dra.?

wa gyd ko alamat ani....pero nahadlok pod ko....

iya sulti sa akoa, cause kono ani, kung dili stress, na-inherated kono.....

Thanks kaayo, Dra. for your kind attention ani.....

balik nya ko diri, to read what is your advices n what shall i do.....thank you

diay ako email ads, dra. mao ni: